Carbon and Nutrients
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Carbon Sources (COD)
A supplemental external carbon source may be required for biological wastewater systems when influent carbon is insufficient to sustain biological growth and denitrification. In many cases, the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA’s) is insufficient or if a fermenter is not available to produce readily bio-available carbon.
Micronutrients are an important component in the operation of a wastewater treatment plant. They are beneficial to improving the metabolism and overall health of biological systems. Iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and tungstate (W) are known as crucial trace elements for enzymatic activity in the methanogenic systems (biogas production).